P&S


AIMED POINT SHOOTING OR P&S
THE USE OF P&S MENTIONED OR DESCRIBED IN BOOKS DATED: 1804, 1810, 1816, 1829, 1835, 1870, 1885, 1898, 1900, 1903, 1912, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1941


The following is a chronology of AIMED Point Shooting or P&S. It is different from other Point shooting methods such as CAR, QK, FAS, etc...

1. Some of the entries are very brief, but they describe a key element of P&S which is using the middle finger on the trigger.

2. Other entries, that caution against its use with the 1911 because of a design fault of the 1911, verify that it was a known and used shooting method of that time.

3. And some of the entries are historical references to its use as mentioned in publications of a later time.

..........

1804 - In the 1804 book: Instructions For The Drill, we find..."Pull the trigger strong with the middle finger."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=ScgKAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA83&dq=middle+finger+trigger+pull&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1810 - In a general Military Dictionary of 1810, we find that to fire you should..."Pull the trigger strong with the middle finger."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=BLxBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA369&dq=middle+finger+on+trigger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1816 - The Encyclopedia Perthensis' or Universal Dictionary of 1816, carries the same language.

This is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=_UVQAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA655&dq=middle+finger+trigger+pull&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1829 - The Arcana of Science of 1829, mentions "pulling the trigger with the middle finger."

This is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=bCMFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA70&dq=middle+finger+trigger+pull&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1835 - Helps And Hints - How To - Protect Life And Property, by: Lt. Col. Baron De Berenger, 1835.

The book was recently digitalized as part of the Google project. Here is a pic of the cover:

1835cover

Here is a link to it.

This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=jSiQEVNLMMoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22He lps+and+Hints%22+Berenger&lr=&as_brr=1

See pages 237, 238, and 239.

The author states that the method is best used with dueling pistols, and in self defense situations against highway robbers, housebreakers, and etc., who will not allow one to take the time to deliberately aim with the sights.

Another reason for its use in those situations, is that per the author, ..."can you be certain of your usual steadiness of nerve, when you look into the muzzle of a pistol presented at you, and menacing a fatal blaze."

Also, in poor or bad light, or given a dark or mottled target, one may not be able to make out the sights for aiming.

Basically, "his" shooting method calls for the use of the forefinger for aiming, and the use of the second finger for trigger pulling. And it is easy to learn, and with very little practice.

1870 - The following quote is from Joseph Renaud's self defense book: "la Defense Dans La Rue" 1912, as translated by James Farthing and Herve Dautry. Joseph Renaud was a professor of La Canne, Savate, Knife, English boxing and Jiu-Jitsu. The quote is from the chapter: "The Revolver." The full text can be found at http://defensedanslarue.wordpress.com/history/the-revolver/

"Some people will find it useful to press the trigger with the middle finger while keeping the index finger against the cylinder, parallel to the barrel. This technique relies on the habit of using the index finger to point at things.

"I heard the General de Chabot tell that such a method of shooting had saved his life in several occasions. For example, the day before the battle of Sarrebruck in 1870, he found himself face to face with a Prussian captain while seating in a small canteen. They both shot at each other straight away. Mr de Chabot had a single action weapon while his foe had a double action one. Nevertheless, the German missed five times while the French lieutenant mortally wounded him with his second shot. It must be noticed that both had fired hastily but this technique for handling the revolver makes instinctive shooting more accurate. Always used this technique with a good quality revolver, as it will prevent any spit of lead from between the cylinder and the barillet that would burn your fingers."

1885 - Instructions in rifle and carbine firing for the United States army - 1885. Page 33:..."If the trigger has been pulled with a jerk instead of a gradual pressure, ...Some riflemen advocate the employment of the second finger upon the trigger ..."

1898 - In the publication Recreation of January, 1898, on pg 148 we find: ..."In shooting a rifle, most sportsmen use the index finger to pull the trigger. If your readers would try using the second finger, and squeezing the hand together, instead of a direct pull, they would find a great difference in the pull of the trigger. This method is of great advantage when one has a standing shot at deer, as one is less liable to pull off."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=5UIQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA148&dq=shooting+guns+with+the+middle+finger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1900 - In the publication Bullet and Shot in Indian Forest..., 1900, we find: ..."Some beginners are very apt to 'pull off' in the act of firing. If such will make a practice of using the middle finger put well round the trigger, in place of the forefinger, they will probably find a great improvement in their shooting."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=5VtDAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA325&dq=forefinger+aiming+and+shooting+with+the+middle+finger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1900 - The following is from a review of the Mauser C-96 "Broomhandle" Machine Pistol by David M. Fortier. In it, he said that the C-96 was extremely popular in china from the early 1900's up through the 1940's and beyond.

C96 pic

"....Special commando units were armed entirely with the C-96, and later the selective fire variants, as well as a large beheading sword carried in a leather scabbard on their back. Recognizing the Mauser's weak and strong points, the Chinese developed the following technique for using the C-96 and later the 712. They would hold it sideways (what we would today refer to as "Gangbanger style"), with the index finger lying on the magazine well pointing at the target, and pull the trigger with the middle finger.

Click here to see a copy of this excellent "historical" article on the C-96. It appeared in Gun World -February 2001, and is reproduced by permission. This is the URL: http://www.pointshooting.com/c96ok.pdf

Here is a picture from a 1902 Patent:
1902

1903 - Modern rifle shooting from the American standpoint... 1903, ..."Some military men pull with the middle finger, but I firmly believe that index finger is far better, ...

Here is the link. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=MvYWAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=walther+shooting+using+middle+finger&source=bl&ots=RN_mU_ZrqL&sig=Gr08De4Cm4nMWf2lfPWOfQaJWSw&hl=en&ei=7xMaSsT1OJPItAP33NySDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8

Here is a picture from a 1908 Patent:
1908

Here is wording from the 1908 Patent:

"This invention relates to a device adapted for attachment to fire-arms of various kinds, more especially to shot - guns or hunting rifles, and has for its object to facilitate quick and accurate pointing of the weapon without being obliged to adjust the gun-stock to the shoulder for aiming at birds just rising from the bush or in flight, or at other game.

The invention is based largely upon the fact that the conscious or sub-conscious faculties intuitively enable men to point the index finger directly and accurately at any visible object without bringing the outstretched finger into alinement with or between the eye and the object."

Here is a link to several other patents that acknowledge and support the use of P&S.

1912 - The following quote is from Joseph Renaud's self defense book: "la Defense Dans La Rue" 1912, as translated by James Farthing and Herve Dautry. Joseph Renaud was a professor of La Canne, Savate, Knife, English boxing and Jiu-Jitsu. The quote is from the chapter: "The Revolver." The full text can be found at http://defensedanslarue.wordpress.com/history/the-revolver/

Special handling

Some people will find it useful to press the trigger with the middle finger while keeping the index finger against the cylinder, parallel to the barrel. This technique relies on the habit of using the index finger to point at things.

I heard the General de Chabot tell that such a method of shooting had saved his life in several occasions. For example, the day before the battle of Sarrebruck in 1870, he found himself face to face with a Prussian captain while seating in a small canteen. They both shot at each other straight away. Mr de Chabot had a single action weapon while his foe had a double action one. Nevertheless, the German missed five times while the French lieutenant mortally wounded him with his second shot. It must be noticed that both had fired hastily but this technique for handling the revolver makes instinctive shooting more accurate. Always used this technique with a good quality revolver, as it will prevent any spit of lead from between the cylinder and the barillet that would burn your fingers.

1912 - This cautionary language which recognizes that P&S was known of and used, is in the 1912 publication: Description Of The Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45, Model Of 1911.

..."(3) The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=hs9BAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA16&dq=second+finger+on+trigger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1915 - Automatic Pistol Shooting... 1915, ..."Some Englishmen shoot with the second finger on the trigger and the first along the pistol..."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=8iZzK2-aSWoC&q=how+to+shoot+pistols+with+the+second+finger&dq=how+to+shoot+pistols+with+the+second+finger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1&pgis=1

1917 - This cautionary language which recognizes that P&S was known of and used, is in the US Army's 1917 Small Arms Instructors Manual: An Intensive Course, Including Official...

On Page 82 we find: "3. The trigger should be squeezed with the forefinger. If the trigger is squeezed with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=z99EAAAAIAAJ&pg=PR9&dq=military+manual+on+the+1911+automatic&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1#PPA82,M1

1917 - Complete United States infantry guide for Officers and noncommissioned... United States. War Dept - 1917 - 2074 pages.
On Page 633 we find ... The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1917 - Description of the automatic pistol, caliber .45, model of 1911: with rules ...? United States. Ordanace dept - 1917 - 20 pages

Page 16 ... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1917 - Manual for noncommissioned Officers and privates of field artillery of the ... United States. War Dept, United States. Adjutant-General's Office - 1917
Page 23 ... forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1917 - Small arms instructors manual: an intensive course,including official ... Reginald H. Sayre, Stowe Phelps, Gerard P. Herrick, Small arms instruction corps - 1917 - 184 pages
Page 82 ... forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to pass against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1918 - Handbook for seaman gunners: covering course for seaman gunners at the Navy Washington Navy Yard - 1918 - 397 pages
Page 129 ... The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver Is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1920 - Farrow's manual of military training - Edward Samuel Farrow - 1920 - 1034 pages
Page 315 ... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1921 - The R. O. T. C. manual: a text book for the Reserve Officers Training Corps - Paul Stanley Bond, Enoch Barton Garey, Olin Oglesby Ellis, Thomas Leroy McMurray - 1921
Page 3 ... it is apt to press against the projecting end of the slide stop pin, thus causing a jam when the slide recoils.

1921 - Platoon Training by Lt. Col. William H. Waldron, United States Army - Page 612, 1921, carries the same cautionary language which recognizes that P&S was known of and used, as the 1912 manual.

..."(3) The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1&q=second+finger+on+trigger+platoon+training

1921 - An ROTC publication of 1921 also carries the cautionary language which recognizes that P&S was known of and used. On page 3 we find ..."The trigger must be squeezed with the index finger. If the second finger is used on the trigger the index finger will be extended along the side of the receiver where it is apt to press again[st] the projecting end of the slide stop pin, thus causing a jam when the slide recoils....."

Here is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=holCAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA3-PA3&dq=second+finger+on+trigger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1

1922 - Training regulations: TR.? - United States. War Dept - 1922
Page 13 ... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the ...

1925 - Field artillery manual - Arthur Riehl Wilson, Robert Melville Danford -Biography & Autobiography - 1925
Page 2 ... The trigger should lie pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1926 - Special Regulations - California. Adjutant General's Office -Biography & Autobiography - 1926

Page 31 ... If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1926 - Training regulations - United States. War Dept - 1926
... extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1927 - Manual of Basic Training and Standards of Proficiency for the National Guard United States - National Guard Bureau 1927
Page 120 ... The trigger should be pulled with the forefinger. If the trigger is pulled with the second finger, the forefinger extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1929 - SpecialRegulations - 1929
Page 68 ... extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a jam when the slide recoils. ...

1941 - The state defense force manual - Military Service Publishing Company - 1941 - 559 pages
Page 324 ... extending along the side of the receiver is apt to press against the projecting pin of the slide stop and cause a malfunction when the slide recoils. ...

The following paragraph is from John Minnery's 1973 book: "Kill Without Joy" The Complete How To Kill Book (not a read for the weak of heart or squeamish).

book para

The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a World War II organization of the United Kingdom. It was officially formed to conduct warfare by means other than direct military engagement. Its mission was to encourage and facilitate espionage and sabotage behind enemy lines and to serve as the core of the British resistance movement.

Britain's Secret Intelligence Service, SIS provides the British Government with a global covert capability to promote and defend the national security and economic well-being of the United Kingdom. It is also known as MI6.

Here's the pic of Oswald and Ruby, just a split second before Oswald is shot.
Ruby shoots Oswald

Ruby, the two Officer who were escorting Oswald, and Oswald, were moving and the target area was small. So, there was no time to use the sights or do any of the "standard" requirements listed above. Only time to point-n-pull.

This pic shows Oswald just after he was shot. In it, you can see that Ruby's middle finger is sticking out from the trigger guard, and his gun is way below eye level.

Ruby shoots Oswald

Here is a picture of a Tokarev TT-33, and one of the end of its slide stop pin that is held in place with a two pronged clip. The Tokarev has features that are similar to those of the Browning pistol. The Tokarev was used by the Soviets and over 1.5 million were produced. Apparently the Russians believed that practicality and survival should drive gun design. The Tokarev photo is by: Mike Killebrew.

Tokarev spacer Tokarev

1955 - When qualifying in 1955, a WW II Sgt. told me to aim my grease gun with my index finger along the side of the gun and use my middle finger on the trigger when shooting from the hip. I did and know that I hit the target in the center, because there was a wood strip that ran up the center of the target on the back side to support it, and when I fired from the hip, splinters flew off.

grease gun

1964 - This comment is from the modern book: Trauma Room One: The JFK Medical Coverup, and deals with gripping the gun..."Detective Leavelle, cuffed to Oswald's right are, notices Ruby holding a pistol by his side. He sees Ruby crouch, extend the pistol, and quickly move in on his prisoner, but has no time to react. Ruby, gripping a .38 Colt Cobra pistol tightly in his right hand in an "assassins grip" (a Chicago term for the grip used by an assassin to prevent the weapon from being wrenched from his hand; this grip utilizes the middle finger on the trigger and the index finger on the cylinder above)."

This is a link to it. This is the URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=9EBfJz086b0C&pg=PA126&dq=shooting+guns+with+the+middle+finger&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=4O_X4RVMeJCO_VV6HJtVsr2lx70#PPA126,M1

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